Tuesday, 11 December 2012

OUGD405- Typogateaux

General Cake Research

I have had an idea to incorporate cmyk colours into my cake some how.

The image above has given me the idea to create a battenberg cake with cmyk colours running through out the cake.

Battenberg Recipe

I found this recipe that I'm going to use to make my cake. 

¾ cup (1½ sticks) 175gm / 6 oz Unsalted Butter, softened & cut in cubes
¾ cup / 175gm / 6 oz Caster Sugar
1¼ cups / 175gm / 6 oz Self-Raising Flour (***see end of doc on how to make your own)
3 Large Eggs, room temp
½ cup / 65gm / 2 1/3 oz Ground Almonds (Can be substituted with ground rice)
3/4 tsp Baking Powder
½ tsp Vanilla Extract
1/4 tsp Almond Extract
Red Food Colouring, paste, liquid or gel

To Finish
1/3 cup (80 ml) 100gm / 3 ½ oz Apricot Jam
225gm / 8 oz Marzipan, natural or yellow

  • Preheat oven to moderate 350°F/180°C/160°C Fan Assisted/Gas Mark 4
  • Grease an 8”/20cm square baking tin with butter
  • Line the tin with parchment paper, creating a divide in the middle with the parchment (or foil)
  • - Tip: See photos or watch video at end for detailed instructions
  • OR Prepare Battenberg tin by brushing the tin with melted butter and flouring
  • Whisk together the dry ingredients then combine with the wet ingredients in a large bowl and beat together just until the ingredients are combined and the batter is smooth
  • Spoon half the mixture into the one side of the prepared baking tin
  • Add a few drops of red food liquid/gel/paste to the remaining batter, stir until the colour is thoroughly distributed, add more colour if needed
  • Spoon the pink batter into the other half of the prepared baking tin
  • Smooth the surface of the batter with a spatula, making sure batter is in each corner
  • Bake for 25-30mins until the cake is well risen, springs back when lightly touched and a toothpick comes out clean (it should shrink away from the sides of the pan)
  • Leave to cool in the tin for a few minutes before turning out to cool thoroughly on a wire rack

  • Once completely cool, trim the edges of the cake with a long serrated knife
  • Cut each coloured sponge in half lengthways so that you are left with four long strips of sponge
  • Neaten the strips and trim as necessary so that your checkered pattern is as neat and even as possible
  • Gently heat the apricot jam and pass through a small sieve
  • Brush warmed jam onto the strips of cake to stick the cake together in a checkered pattern (one yellow next to one pink. On top of that, one pink next to one yellow)
  • - Tip: See photos for detailed instructions
  • Dust a large flat surface with icing sugar then roll the marzipan in an oblong shape that is wide enough to cover the length of the cake and long enough to completely wrap the cake
  • Brush the top of the cake with apricot jam
  • Place the cake on the marzipan, jam side down
  • - Tip: Either in the middle or to the one side of the marzipan
  • Brush the remaining three sides with jam
  • Press the marzipan around the cake, making sure the join is either neatly in the one corner, or will be underneath the cake once turned over
  • - Tip: If you put the sponge to the one side of the marzipan, I found it easiest to "roll" the sponge over and over onto the marzipan instead of lifting the marzipan up onto the sponge
  • Carefully flip the cake over so that the seam is under the cake and score the top of the cake with a knife, you can also crimp the top corners with your fingers to decorate
  • Neaten the ends of the cake and remove excess marzipan by trimming off a small bit of cake on both ends to reveal the pattern

Monday, 10 December 2012

OUGD405- Research, Collect, Communicate

We have been given a theme to research over Christmas. I received:

'The Bauhaus'

Bauhuas: "School of Building"

The school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar in 1919.

It operated from 1919 to 1933.

Commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught.

The Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design.

Walter Gropius, "Bauhuas Manifesto and program" (1919)

I have taken some of the main points from the manifesto that I found interesting:

Architects, painters, and sculptors must recognize anew and
learn to grasp the composite character of a building both as an entity and in its separate parts.

When young people who take a joy in artistic creation once more begin their life's work by learning a
trade, then the unproductive “artist” will no longer be condemned to deficient artistry, for their
skill will now be preserved for the crafts, in which they will be able to achieve excellence.

Proficiency in a craft is essential to every artist. Therein lies the prime source of creative imagination.

Let us then create a new guild of craftsmen without the class distinctions that raise an
arrogant barrier between craftsman and artist! Together let us desire, conceive, and create the
new structure of the future, which will embrace architecture and sculpture and painting in one
unity and which will one day rise toward heaven from the hands of a million workers like the
crystal symbol of a new faith.

Walter Gropius

I like Gropius's views of having an apreciation for different mediums, I can apply this philoshophy to my own practice to enrich my views and ideas of graphic design.

Principles of the Bauhaus

Art rises above all methods; in itself it cannot be taught, but the crafts certainly can be.

Range of Instruction

Instruction at the Bauhaus includes all practical and scientific areas of creative work.
A. Architecture,
B. Painting,
C. Sculpture
including all branches of the crafts.

Students are trained in a craft (1) as well as in drawing and painting (2) and science and theory (3).

Craft training forms the basis of all teaching at the Bauhaus. Every student must learn a craft.

The school existed in three German cities (Weimar from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and Berlin from 1932 to 1933), under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930 and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazi regime.

The Schools history of design

Weimar Building

The pottery workshop 

The textile workshop

The metal workshop 

Marianne Brandt 1924

Lucia Moholy 1924

Wolfgang Rossger and Friedrich Marby 1924

The furniture workshop

Wood carving and stone sculpture Workshops

Adolf Sommerfeld house designed by Gropius and Meyer

The graphic printing workshop

Dessau Building

The printing and advertising workshop

The joinery, metal, mural-painting and sculpture workshops

Berlin Building

All information above has been sourced from books:

Strecker, J (2000) The Mad Square, Sydney, Art Gallery of New South Wales

Fiedler, J (2006) Bauhaus, England, Konemann

Chakraborty, K.J. (2006) Bauhaus Culture, Minnesota, University of Minnesota Press

Stein, J (1976) Bauhaus, London, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Droste, M (2006) Bauhaus Archive, Los Angeles, Bauhuas-Archiv Museum fur Gestaltung Klingelhoferstr

Continued Bauhaus Research

Bauhaus Furniture 

Bauhaus Furniture Designers

During the mid of the 20Th century, Bauhaus Furniture movement reached unprecedented level of design and creation,it was the breaking point from the dark-heavy traditional  classic furniture..modern designs with functionality and simplicity start emerging in Charles Eames furniture,Mies Van Der Rhoe,Arne Jacobsen.Josef Hoffmann.Le Corbusier,Eileen Gray,Florence Knoll and many more..
During the mid of the 20Th Century, Bauhaus furniture movement went hand in hand with the architectural and technological progress,furniture designers combined all the elements of Art graphic,architecture,new technological materials such as the application of Fibreglass in Eames designs or the metal rod bending techniques in Harry Bertoia designs,all together to create a timeless and beautiful furniture designs..Many Bauhaus leading names in Architecture were also household names in designer furniture and designed some of the most iconic pieces in  modern classic furniture history.

In keeping with the philosophy of form following and adding to function, the pieces are typically constructed using durable and readily available materials such as steel, leather and fabrics (many of which were produced by the school itself). Production was always a major concern and all furniture was designed to be able to build in a mass production type of mentality. This was necessary in order to make it wide spread and keep production costs low, while maintaining a consistent and available product.

Marcel Breuer, Tubular steel chair design 1928 

Marcel Breuer, Tubular steel armchair, design 1926

Walter Gropius, Cabinet for periodicals, design 1923 

Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret, Tubular steel bed from the Weissenhof-Siedlung, 1927

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Tubular steel chair, design 1927

Arne Jacobsen's Designs : ( 1902-1971 )

The Egg Chair 

Mies Van Der Rhoe Ludwig Designs (1886-1969 )

Barcelona Daybed

 Barcelona Chair and Sofa

Josef Hoffmamm (1870-1956)

Kubus Armchair collection 

Verneer Panton ( 1926 - 1998 )v

Panton Amoebe Lounge Chair

Warren Platner ( 1919-2006 )


Eero Saarinen ( 1910 - 1961 )



  Saarinen Womb Chair and Ottoman

Charles Eames:( 1907-1978 )


During the Weimar period, two separate sculpture workshops operated at the Bauhaus: one for stone work, one for wood-carving. To begin with, Johannes Itten directed both, and in 1922 was succeeded by Oskar Schlemmer. The supervising master-craftsman (later famous for his Bauhaus-style chess set) was the sculptor Josef Hartwig. At Dessau a single workshop was set up in 1925 by Joost Schmidt.

At Weimar, in keeping with the focus on architecture, students worked mainly on architectural sculpture. Thus for example in 1921-22, the wood workshop created reliefs and wooden cravings for the Adolf Sommerfeld house designed by Gropius and Meyer, while in 1922-23 the stone workshop produced wall decorations for the Bauhaus' own school buildings.

If the initial emphasis at Weimar was on free artistic work, sculpture classes at Dessau concentrated more on educational aspects. Joost Schmidt's workshop provided an introductory course in sculpture, while students also explored stage design, the creation of maquettes as well as architectural sculpture.

Woman with Infant

Frau mit Säugling, 1919

Tower of Fire

Turm des Feuers, 1920


Josef Hartwig, Eule, 1922

Light-Space Modulator

László Moholy-Nagy, Licht-Raum-Modulator, 1922-1930, Replik 1970


There are a number of characteristics to the Bauhaus/International Style of architecture: 

1) It shuns ornamentation and favors functionality 
2) Uses asymmetry and regularity versus symmetry 
3) It grasps architecture in terms of space versus mass

Bauhaus buildings are usually cubic, favor right angles, (although some feature rounded corners and balconies); they have smooth facades and an open floor plan.

The design style embodied by Walter Gropius became known as the International Style of modern architecture, and later spread to the United States, where it was developed by Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969) and other European emigrants like Richard Neutra (1892-1970).

Bauhaus architecture, whose founding father was Walter Gropius, developed in Germany in the 1920s and later in the U.S., in the 1930s. The American form of this architectural style was dubbed the International Style after Gropius, Mies van der Rohe and other leaders of Bauhaus migrated to the U.S., with the Nazi’s growing influence. The Bauhaus school in Dessau was closed on April 11th, 1933, by the police, at the insistence of the National Socialist government. 

Purists assert that Bauhaus architecture can only refer to buildings in Germany and anything else should be termed International Style – while others use the terms interchangeably (as is the case in this issue of Gems in Israel). The term International Style was really adopted after the publication of a book that coincided with a 1932 exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The book, by historian Henry-Russell Hitchcock and architect Philip Johnson, was called, The International Style. 

Bauhaus architecture was concerned with the social aspects of design and with the creation of a new form of social housing for workers. This may be just another one of the reasons it was embraced in the newly evolving city of Tel Aviv, at a time when socialist ideas were so prevalent. This style of architecture came about (in part) because of new engineering developments that allowed the walls to be built around steel or iron frames. This meant that walls no longer had to support the structure, but only enveloped it – from the outside.
The teachings at the Bauhaus school of design, which functioned from 1919 to 1933 (first in Weimar and later in Dessau), were greatly influenced by the machine age. The school's aim was to fuse all the arts under the concept of design. The school had 700 students and was known for requiring its students to forget everything they had learned to date. 

Gropius engaged some of the best artists of the day, Paul Klee, Vassily Kandinsky, Lyonel Feininger, and Oscar Schlemmer, to name a few, to teach at the school. Influential Bauhaus architects were Walter Gropius, Mies van der Rohe, Hannes Meyer and Le Corbusier to name a few.
The International Style was a decidedly different type of architecture that did not rely on the architecture of the past, but aimed to establish a new, modern style.

Seagram Building, Chicago, 1958

United Nations Secretariat Building

Glass House by Philip Johnson

Architecture is constantly refered to from the sources I have researched and has interested me the most. I perticually like the use of geometric forms and materials that creates a futuristic aesthetic. I am going to focus my research on architecture that has Bauhaus, modernist influences.

Primary Research

For primary research I photographed buildings that I found interesting and had elements of the Bauhaus/International style.

The Bauhaus philosophy towards architecture had an urgency of utopianism. This made me wonder what the buildings would look like at night time. Referring to ideas of dystopia as an aesthetic, i photographed buildings at night, to discover a whole new perspective of colours and shapes.

Secondary research 
sourced from the internet.

All images above sourced from my personal blog: http://jameskeefe.tumblr.com